MySQL :: MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual :: MySQL Glossary

MySQL :: MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual :: MySQL Glossary Contact MySQL  |  Login  |  Register The world's most popular open source database MySQL.com Downloads Documentation Developer Zone Developer Zone Downloads MySQL.com Documentation MySQL Server MySQL Enterprise Workbench Router Utilities/Fabric MySQL NDB Cluster Connectors More MySQL.com Downloads Developer Zone Section Menu:   Documentation Home MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual Preface and Legal Notices General Information Installing and Upgrading MySQL Using MySQL as a Document Store Tutorial MySQL Programs MySQL Server Administration Security Backup and Recovery Optimization Language Structure Globalization Data Types Functions and Operators SQL Statement Syntax The InnoDB Storage Engine Alternative Storage Engines High Availability and Scalability Replication MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 Partitioning Stored Programs and Views INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables MySQL Performance Schema MySQL sys Schema Connectors and APIs Extending MySQL MySQL Enterprise Edition MySQL Workbench MySQL 5.7 Frequently Asked Questions Errors, Error Codes, and Common Problems Restrictions and Limits Indexes MySQL Glossary Related Documentation MySQL 5.7 Release Notes Download this Manual PDF (US Ltr) - 35.7Mb PDF (A4) - 35.7Mb PDF (RPM) - 34.7Mb EPUB - 8.7Mb HTML Download (TGZ) - 8.5Mb HTML Download (Zip) - 8.5Mb HTML Download (RPM) - 7.3Mb Eclipse Doc Plugin (TGZ) - 9.3Mb Eclipse Doc Plugin (Zip) - 11.5Mb Man Pages (TGZ) - 203.5Kb Man Pages (Zip) - 308.9Kb Info (Gzip) - 3.3Mb Info (Zip) - 3.3Mb Excerpts from this Manual MySQL Backup and Recovery MySQL Globalization MySQL Information Schema MySQL Installation Guide MySQL and Linux/Unix MySQL and OS X MySQL Partitioning MySQL Performance Schema MySQL Replication Using the MySQL Yum Repository MySQL Restrictions and Limitations Security in MySQL MySQL and Solaris Building MySQL from Source Starting and Stopping MySQL MySQL Tutorial MySQL and Windows MySQL Cluster NDB 7.5 version 5.7 8.0 5.6 5.5 5.6  Japanese MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  MySQL Glossary MySQL Glossary These terms are commonly used in information about the MySQL database server. This glossary originated as a reference for terminology about the InnoDB storage engine, and the majority of definitions are InnoDB-related. A .ARM file Metadata for ARCHIVE tables. Contrast with .ARZ file. Files with this extension are always included in backups produced by the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product. See Also .ARZ file , MySQL Enterprise Backup , mysqlbackup command . .ARZ file Data for ARCHIVE tables. Contrast with .ARM file. Files with this extension are always included in backups produced by the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product. See Also .ARM file , MySQL Enterprise Backup , mysqlbackup command . ACID An acronym standing for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. These properties are all desirable in a database system, and are all closely tied to the notion of a transaction. The transactional features of InnoDB adhere to the ACID principles. Transactions are atomic units of work that can be committed or rolled back. When a transaction makes multiple changes to the database, either all the changes succeed when the transaction is committed, or all the changes are undone when the transaction is rolled back. The database remains in a consistent state at all times — after each commit or rollback, and while transactions are in progress. If related data is being updated across multiple tables, queries see either all old values or all new values, not a mix of old and new values. Transactions are protected (isolated) from each other while they are in progress; they cannot interfere with each other or see each other's uncommitted data. This isolation is achieved through the locking mechanism. Experienced users can adjust the isolation level, trading off less protection in favor of increased performance and concurrency, when they can be sure that the transactions really do not interfere with each other. The results of transactions are durable: once a commit operation succeeds, the changes made by that transaction are safe from power failures, system crashes, race conditions, or other potential dangers that many non-database applications are vulnerable to. Durability typically involves writing to disk storage, with a certain amount of redundancy to protect against power failures or software crashes during write operations. (In InnoDB, the doublewrite buffer assists with durability.) See Also atomic , commit , concurrency , doublewrite buffer , isolation level , locking , rollback , transaction . adaptive flushing An algorithm for InnoDB tables that smooths out the I/O overhead introduced by checkpoints. Instead of flushing all modified pages from the buffer pool to the data files at once, MySQL periodically flushes small sets of modified pages. The adaptive flushing algorithm extends this process by estimating the optimal rate to perform th